An absorbent aluminum phyllosilicate which is in general impure clay consisting mont morillonite is known as bentonite. The names highly depend on dominant elements which are potassium, sodium, calcium and aluminum which are termed as the different types of bentonites. Bentonites are usually formed from weathering of the volcanic ash which has presence in the water. This material is used for industrial purpose which has two main classes which are sodium and calcium bentonite. These two main classes of bentonites are elaborated in broader way. Sodium bentonites expand when they are wet and also absorb much several times its dry mass in that of water. These bentonites have excellent colloidal properties which are very much used for drilling mud for oil and gas wells highly effective for geotechnical and environmental investigations.
The other type includes calcium bentonites which are useful adsorbent of ions in solutions as fats and oil being the main ingredient and also calcium bentonites can be converted into sodium bentonites. It is used in the cement, adhesives, and ceramic bodies and highly known in binding agent in manufacturing of taconite pellets which is highly used in the steelmaking industry. The mass and wide use of bentonite is done in the manufacturing for clay. Various categories for which this bentonite material is used which are well drilling, taconite pelletizing, metal casting, and animal or for poultry feeds.
The types of bentonite clays and types of bentonites are one and the same the only difference for bentonite clays are the other term which is known as swelling bentonite is known as sodium and western bentonite is known as calcium or southern bentonite. The unique one is the potassium bentonite is known a illitic clay with very high potassium content and is also considered as non- swelling which is used for construction of buildings. When bentonite is mixed with water creates and maintains very strong electromagnetic field enabling it to attract and hold unwanted toxic substance and also is not very much harmful even though slight trace of aluminum has been found it this bentonite clay with which there are no side effects of bentonite clay.