A process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes are known as flocculation. In this process of flocculation colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution as there is no information since all the flocs are in the suspension are in the suspension. Flocculants have many applications which are surface chemistry where flocculation process refers as fine particulates which are caused to clump together into a floc as these floc float to the top of the liquid and settle to the bottom of the liquid.
The other application consist physical chemistry very essential for emulsions as flocculation describes clustering of individual dispersed droplets together where the individual droplets do not lose their identity as flocculation is the initial step. Another one is brewing where flocculation is used for measuring the progress of brewing yeast for fermentation. Flocculants are described as fine particles in water remain continuously in motion due to electrostatic charge causing them to repel each other, as soon as the electrostatic charge is neutralized by the use of coagulant chemical then the finer particles start to collide and agglomerate under the influences of forces.
The types of chemicals used in the flocculants are alum, aluminum sulphate, calcium oxide and sodium aluminates and natural products used are isinglass, gelatine, guar gum, alginates. These flocculants facilitates flocculation of suspended solids, liquids which are associated with wastewater. The types of flocculants are alum flocculent, nalco flocculent, polymer flocculent. These flocculants are used in many industrial segments for specific applications. These processed using hygienic and excellent quality of material and are very much in demand today and have popular today. Flocculants chemicals are very much soluble in water. Laboratory flocculate consist of stirrers for conducting standard jar test and also are specially designed for the use in water and chemical treatment plants by enabling it the plant operator to appropriately dosing of alum.